This phase insures the systematic development of the learning process. It is driven by the products of the analysis phase and ends in a model or blueprint of the learning process for future development. The model or blueprint should contain at least five key outputs:
- Learning objectives
- Performance test
- Performance steps (learning steps)
- Entry behaviors
- Sequence and structure the learning process
- The learning objectives spell out the tasks the learners will be able to perform after they finish the learning process.
- The performance test requires the learners to perform the task or activity to standards.
- The learning or performance steps show how to perform a task. If the performance is mostly cognitive in nature, then use Cognitive Task Analysis.
- The entry behaviors describe what the learners must know before entering the training process. Just as a college requires certain standards to be met in order to enroll, a learning process should require a base level of knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSA).
- Finally, the learning process is sequenced and structured in an orderly fashion to provide the best opportunity for learning that will lead to performance.
Note how this design process builds on the outputs of the Backwards Planning Model that was captured in the Analysis Phase:
The model below shows an example of linking the analysis outputs with the design outputs:
The backwards planning model can also be shown with a Concept or Mind Map that allows you to show several performance requirements (known as “branches”). The example below shows four branches to meet the business need or objective. Note that when you complete one branch, you can add other branches to it. This mapping process allows you to show the program outline in a visual manner.
Each branch should identify the:
Learning activities that teach the performance
Information the learners must know in order to perform
Performance aids that will make the learning of new skills easier
The concept map shown below is an example for increasing sales:
This concept map is similar to the one that Cathy Moore has in her excellent slide presentation that she calls Action Mapping.
There are no better terms available to describe the difference between the approach of the natural and the social sciences than to call the former “objective” and the latter “subjective”... While for the natural scientist the contrast between objective facts and subjective opinions is a simple one, the distinction cannot as readily be applied to the object of the social sciences. The reason for this is that the object, the “facts” of the social sciences are also opinions not opinions of the student of the social phenomena, of course, but opinions of those whose actions produce the object of the social scientist. - The Counter-Revolution of Science by Friedrich August Von Hayek.
Go to the next section: Develop Objectives
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U.S. Army Field Artillery School (1984). A System Approach To Training (Course Student textbook). ST - 5K061FD92
U.S. Department of Defense Training Document (1975). Pamphlet 350-30. August, 1975.