Alternative to Bloom: Structure of Observed Learning Outcome (SOLO) Taxonomy

While Bloom's Taxonomy has been quite useful in that it has extended learning from simply remembering to more complex cognitive structures, such as analyzing and evaluating, newer models have come along. However, it has become more useful with the revised taxonomy.

One model that might prove more useful is the Structure of Observed Learning Outcome (SOLO) taxonomy. It is a model that describes levels of increasing complexity in a learner's understanding of subjects (Biggs, Collis, 1982). It aids both trainers and learners in understanding the learning process. The model consists of five levels in the order of understanding:

SOLO Taxonomy

SOLO not only shows the instructors how the learners are progressing, but also the learners themselves. It does this by putting the processes in squares. You start in the center square (Uni-structural) and work outwards (Multi-structural, Relational, and finally Extended Abstract).

The example below shows the concept of ADDIE and how it starts with learning facts and ends with being able to create a learning process or training using ADDIE:


Next Steps


Biggs, J.B. and Collis, K. (1982). Evaluating the Quality of Learning: the SOLO taxonomy. New York, Academic Press