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Related Resources

Learning Environment Design Framework
Instructional Design Toolkit

ISD Concept Map
ISD Concept Map

Likert Linking Pin Model

Likert Linking-Pin Model

Likert Scales

In 1932, Renis Likert invented a measurement method, called the Likert Scales (often called a rating scale), used in questionnaires such as attitude surveys. They allow answers that range from such choices “strongly disagree” to “strongly agree.” It is the most widely used scale in survey research. When responding to a Likert questionnaire item, respondents specify their level of agreement to a statement, for example:

   1           2          3          4           5       6       7
Strongly   Disagree   Slightly   Undecided   Slightly  Agree  Strongly
Disagree              Disagree               Agree            Agree

1. My job provides a lot of variety. _____

2. My job provides the opportunity for independent action. _____

In some cases there should not be a middle choice so that the respondents are forced to choose one side or the other. In the example below, note there are an even number of choices, rather than an odd number:

   1           2          3          4       5       6
Strongly   Disagree   Slightly   Slightly  Agree  Strongly
Disagree              Disagree    Agree            Agree

Likert also developed the Linking-pin model. It presents an organization as a number of overlapping work units in which a member of a unit is the leader of another unit. For example, it might concern the manager's role in relation to the groups they supervise and the group's perception of that manager. Managers are normally members of at least two groups and their behavior reflects the values, norms, and objects of both groups—a manager is a subordinate in one group and a superior in another group.

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