In 1932, Renis Likert invented a measurement method, called the Likert Scales (often called a rating scale), used in questionnaires such as attitude surveys. They allow answers that range from such choices “strongly disagree” to “strongly agree.” It is the most widely used scale in survey research. When responding to a Likert questionnaire item, respondents specify their level of agreement to a statement, for example:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Strongly Disagree Slightly Undecided Slightly Agree Strongly Disagree Disagree Agree Agree 1. My job provides a lot of variety. _____ 2. My job provides the opportunity for independent action. _____
In some cases there should not be a middle choice so that the respondents are forced to choose one side or the other. In the example below, note there are an even number of choices, rather than an odd number:
1 2 3 4 5 6 Strongly Disagree Slightly Slightly Agree Strongly Disagree Disagree Agree Agree
Likert also developed the Linking-pin model. It presents an organization as a number of overlapping work units in which a member of a unit is the leader of another unit. For example, it might concern the manager's role in relation to the groups they supervise and the group's perception of that manager. Managers are normally members of at least two groups and their behavior reflects the values, norms, and objects of both groups—a manager is a subordinate in one group and a superior in another group.